Electronic Voting

General information

Type of lecture:V2
Lecturer:Prof. Dr. Melanie Volkamer
Place / Time:S202/C120 / Wednesday 8:00 - 9:50
Requirements:Introduction to Cryptography / Trusted Systems
Language:Material: English, Lecture: German
Exam form:oral


  1. Introduction to e-voting

    • Different types of e-voting systems
    • Classification of voting systems
    • Postal voting vs. online voting
    • Motivation/disadvantages of e-voting
    • Risk/disadvantages of e-voting
    • Problems in e- & paper voting
    • Factors of influence

  2. Requirements for e-voting systems

    • Legal issues and challenges
    • Existing ad hoc requirement documents 
    • KORA: Konkretisierung rechtlicher Anforderungen
    • Security approach / security requirements
    • Other categories of requirements

  3. E-voting systems in use - description and analysis 

    • Polyas system
    • Estonian remote electronic voting system
    • Digital election pen
    • Overview of remote electronic voting in Germany and e-voting in the world

  4. Internet voting specific challenges and solutions

    • Voter identification/authentication 
    • Secrecy of the vote (Randomized Authentication Tokens, Benaloh Model, Separation of Duty, Blind Signatures, Mix-Net, Homomorphic Tallying) 
    • Trustworthiness of voting clients 
    • Uncontrolled environment
    • Availability

  5. Verifiability in e-voting 

    • Introduction to verifiability
    • Paper audit trail
    • Bulletin Board
    • Receipt free / Coercion resistant
    • Helios and Civitas voting schemes
    • Universal verifiability mechanisms
    • Possible extensions to anonymization techniques (Randomized Authentication Tokens, Benaloh Model, Separation of Duty, Blind Signatures)

  6. Evaluation and certification of e-voting systems 

    • Common Criteria
    • ISO 27001
    • k-resilience term

  7. Guest Lecture: Peter Ryan - "Advances in Verifiable Voting Systems"

Teaching goals

  1. Understanding various aspects of electronic voting and their complexity
  2. Knowledge and understanding of methods for requirements analysis and evaluation (focus on IT-Security requirements) and application of these methods to electronic voting
  3. Understanding and analyzing existing electronic voting systems
  4. Understanding the special challenges of Internet voting systems and introduction to existing approaches
  5. Analyzing and understanding existing approaches of verifiable electronic voting systems
  6. Analysis of cryptographic voting protocols


This is the main literature used throughout the lecture. However, in some lectures explicit reference will also be made to other literature.

Internal area for course material

The password-protected area can be reached here.

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